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Nebraska ag producers pay nearly 50 percent more than the national average in property taxes

Nobody likes taxes, but Nebraska farmers and ranchers have even more to dislike than many others around the country.

According to a study by J. David Aiken, Nebraska agriculture property taxes are among the highest in the United States. Over the last three years, Nebraska farmers and ranchers have paid nearly 31 percent of their net farm income as property taxes (47 percent in 2017). Aiken, an agriculture and Water Law Specialist Department with the agricultural Economics University of Nebraska-Lincoln, said that when state and federal taxes are factored in, this represents an effective tax rate of more than 50 percent (over 60 percent in 2017.) Nebraska property taxes on agricultural land as a percentage of net farm income are 146 percent of the United States average (1950-2017 data). The twenty year average is 150 percent, the ten year average is 147 percent, the five year average is 164 percent and the three year average is 188 percent. Property taxes are the single largest tax paid in Nebraska accounting for 38 percent of total state and local tax collections.

The study revealed that sales taxes make up 29 percent of total taxes, and income taxes are 26 percent. Sixty percent of property taxes go to K-12 education funding. All property taxes fund local government—cities, counties, and local school districts. All income taxes and 84 percent of sales taxes are used to fund the state government. Currently with high ag land values across the state, 85 percent of state aid goes to non-agricultural areas and 15 percent is distributed across the board to all school districts. Two-thirds of Nebraska school districts (largely rural) receive little to no state aid.

In Nebraska in 2017, 42,502 farmers paid $686.5 million dollars in property taxes. On a per-farm basis, that breaks down to $16,151 each, second only to California with the average there being $17,229. The national average in 2017 was $4,902, according to data from the 2017 ag Census collected by Chris Clayton, DTN ag Policy Editor.

John O’Dea lives near McCook, Nebraska with his wife and sons. They are feeling the high tax rate, paying 9 dollars a year per acre of grass. More of his tax dollars are given to support Mid-Plains Community College than he can afford to give his own son, who is putting himself through Fort Hays State University in Hays, Kansas. This for him was a cheaper option than Southeast Community College in Nebraska.

“My sons were talking the other day and they agreed “The expense of being a Nebraskan is getting too high,” O’Dea said. “The state has turned into two liberal cities that expect the rest of the state to support them. Folks are having to work off the place to support the ranch. Who will feed and pay the taxes if they force everyone out. It is having a ripple effect on small towns and communities. Every ag producer that has to take a job in town is taking that job away from someone else. I’m 43 years old and I’m paying more for property taxes now than I did for rent when I started. Land in Nebraska is a liability.”

O’Dea feels that there will be some major changes made as producers attempt to refinance land and cattle in the next few years especially with land values going down. The O’Dea family is seriously considering moving their base of operation to a more ag friendly state in the near future.

“The death losses in Nebraska alone will more than offset what USDA estimated what the calf crop was set to increase in 2019. If calf and yearling prices are not considerably higher this fall, our supply and demand market is broken beyond repair. The cow calf expansion phase was at or near its peak, so these losses will pull us back into a shrinking phase in the cow calf sector,” O’Dea said.

Another Nebraska rancher, Karina Jones, said that on top of weather-related disasters, her state’s property taxes are overwhelming.

“Property taxes are like a second mortgage,” said Karina Jones.

The Jones Ranch in Custer County Nebraska has been hit hard by nature and in a way kicked repeatedly while they were down.

“Our situation is unique. We endured the hailstorm in August of 2017 we had to wean calves immediately and start feeding cows on August 13. We didn’t have a blade of grass left on this ranch,” she remembers. By early December of that year, they were running out of feed, and they were forced to send all of the mother cows to be fed by someone off the ranch. “We fed cows from Aug 13, 2017 to June 1, 2018,” Jones said.

Jones believes the state is taking advantage of ranchers like herself and her husband.

“You would think the government would value people like us. We have a particular skill set that can not be taught in a classroom. You can not learn how to be a rancher from Google. It is generations of DNA intelligence. When they put us out of business, it is all lost. Society won’t be able to get that back. We have a particular skill set to feed the world and I can not think of a more noble profession than that,” Jones said. “It doesn’t matter if you own the ground or lease it. The cost of these high taxes is carried by the producer, the cow/calf man or the yearling guy. With the poor cattle markets the last few years we cannot support this tax burden. I do not know the last time I bought my girls a special sports drink at the supermarket line or convenience store. I cannot afford extras!”

The Jones are not a multi-generational operation. “We do not have the working capital of the generations before us to lean on. It all falls squarely on our shoulders, just like many other operators around us. It is a big load to carry,” Jones said.

The Jones’ had insurance on their home but hay loss from the hail storm was not covered because hail is a non-covered peril. The same with destroyed grass, trees lost, poor weaning weights on the calves that the cows had at side and poor performing calves that they had in utero. “We just want to raise cattle and kids. That’s all. We don’t want to take from anyone else. We want to give back and better our communities. We want to contribute fairly to our tax commitments. We want to feed our neighbors with a high quality product that we are proud to feed our own families.”

Jones would like to see some producer support meetings where others like her could share ideas. “We all need some good education and a place to be positive and focus on solutions. And yet we need a safe place to be heard. The bankers need us to stay in business,” said Leah Peterson of Custer County, Nebraska. “And none of us want easy; we just want a fair shot. Taxes take that away. As someone says, it’s like paying taxes on a 401K every year.”

Jim Scott, branch president of Bruning State Bank in Broken Bow, Nebraska said, “High property taxes are definitely a major issue due to the current ag economy and high expenses. There has been a depreciation of land values in the last 12 months, due to more land being sold and less profitability, people are looking to reduce debt load.”

“We need to even the tax burden on all citizens, like with a sales tax increase; we are waiting on the legislature to help. Producers need to get involved and pay attention to how money is spent,” Scott said.

The demise of South Dakota horse racing

Due to a lack of funding, two South Dakota tracks have closed their gates for the first time in decades. Photo by Samantha Witte

by Savanna Simmons

As South Dakota-born trainer Bill Mott placed first and third in the Kentucky Derby this year, the tracks that made him decided to hang it all up due to a lack of state funding. Both Aberdeen and Fort Pierre’s tracks couldn’t make a go of hosting races with a shared $120,000 in funding over two years.

Republican sponsors Senator Jeff Monroe, from Pierre, and Representative Drew Dennert, from Aberdeen, asked the Legislature for $600,000 in Senate Bill 128, which was brought down to $360,000, then $120,000 this spring.

“The Governor Appropriation Committee decided that horse racing was on the decline, and there was no need to support it,” said Shane Kramme, who has been a part of or in more than 4,000 horse races in South Dakota. “The funding had slipped down to a very low number, which wouldn’t have allowed both tracks to race.”

The cost per season per location comes in at about $300,000, said Aberdeen’s Northeast Area Horse Racing president Bubby Haar.

On April 9, Northeast Area Horse Racing stated, “After 60 years of horse racing in Aberdeen, SD. Northeast Area Horse Racing (NAHR) will not be conducting a live race meet in 2019. The non-profit organization that has operated and managed the live horse racing meet for the past 23 years has stated that they are unable to meet the recent changes of a bond requirement put in place by the South Dakota Gaming Commission.”

Governor Kristi Noem has been painted no friend to horse racing and “thinks of racing as part of the gambling world more than the agricultural one,” states Paulick Report. The most recent governor to be a blatant supporter of horse racing in the Rushmore state was George Mickelson.

Kramme is concerned about how breeders of South Dakota racing horses will respond to the lack of racing available in this state. “Without incentive, they will move on and go elsewhere. It’s been slowly happening over many years, but this year was particularly difficult,” he said.

It is rumored that Minnesota’s Canterbury Park is hosting a South Dakota-bred futurity without funding from South Dakota, allowing colts a chance to participate in racing this year since they can’t do so at the bullring track at the Stanley County Fairgrounds in Fort Pierre or the Brown County Horse Race Track in Aberdeen.

Famous racers and trainers such as Bill Mott, who placed first in the Grade 1 Kentucky Derby this year with Country House and third with Tacitus and was the trainer of the great racehorse Cigar, four time Derby winner and Hall of Fame trainer D. Wayne Lukas, and Quarter Horse jockey Keith Asmussen, and his sons Hall of Fame trainer Steve Asmussen who trained winners of the Breeders’ Cup, Preakness Stakes, Belmont Stakes, and Eclipse Award winner Cash Asmussen, got their starts at those tracks years ago, giving them a place from which to launch. Aspiring horse-racing youth will no longer have that opportunity unless the non-profit tracks can find funding elsewhere.

Outside Circle by Jan Swan Wood: Lisa wins Calgary, VSV, youth rodeos, relays, ropings, barrels

The weather just doesn’t let up with the exciting thunderstorms, does it? Some pretty major highways were damaged in northwestern S.D. last night and that’s not going to be a quick fix. It sure impedes north/south traffic, especially the major arteries to the oil field in N.D. I haven’t heard any reports of damage in northeastern Wyoming where the tornado was at. Just wind and rain where I’m at, but could see the storms north and south of me that were full of hail and lightning.

Congrats to Lisa Lockhart, Oelrichs, S.D., and her lovely mare Rosa on winning Calgary’s $100,000! I will say that three thousands of a second is sanding it down pretty fine!

Many events are requiring a current (72 hours or less) health and Coggins to check in for events. Be sure your paperwork is in order and find out if your particular event needs the more current health papers. This is due to the VSV and EHV-1 risks.

If you are from New Mexico, Texas or Colorado, you won’t be crossing the Canadian border with your horses any time soon. They have closed the border to them to try to keep the VSV our of Canada. If you haul across the border, stay up to date with your state veterinarian about border requirements, no matter what state you are from.

The Oglala Youth Rodeo in Memory of C.J. Clifford will be Thursday, August 1, 11 a.m. It’s for ages 0-18 with $5/event entry fees. Please pre-enter July 23-25, 3-6 p.m. by calling 605-454-1380. For info call Donnel Ecoffey at 605-454-6635.

It’s short notice I know, but the Budweiser Clydesdales will be making an appearance in Sturgis, S.D. on July 24. They will stage/hitch up at the Public Works office on Dudley St., then go down Main to the Harley Davidson Rally Point on the west end of Main St. by 6 p.m. They’ll be there for an hour for viewing and pictures, so don’t be late. If you haven’t seen them, you should. They are magnificent.

There will be an Open Team Roping July 24 at Stadheim Arena east of Belle Fourche, S.D. It’s enter at 5 p.m. or as soon after the slack at Deadwood as possible. On August 2, 4 p.m., there will be an Open Breakaway jackpot with two rounds and a short go. For either roping call Lynn at 605-430-1543. For team roping only call Levi O’Keeffe at 701-721-9248 and breakaway only Delyssa Stadheim at 605-499-9358.

The Whitehall Rancher’s Roundup, Whitehall, Mont., will be July 27, 6:30 p.m. It will have five man teams (one woman required), $1,000 added, $400/team to enter. Events are team branding, team sorting, trailer loading/doctoring, and wild cow milking. Ranch Broncs will have $250 added, $75/entry with 100 percent payout. Call Bobbi Neumann at 406-491-2877.

Prices will be having a roping out west of Buffalo, S.D. on July 28. You can enter at noon, rope at 1, food to follow.

Entries will open July 30 for the 2nd Annual Newell Bronc Match at Newell, S.D., on August 30, 2 p.m. They’ll buck the futurity colts at 2 p.m., broncs at 5 p.m. There will be World Futurity Association classes for 2 and 3 year old dummy bucking with $500 added, and a saddle bronc class of two horses with $1,500 added, 80 percent payout and $2,500 added for the bronc riders. Bronc riders will have $100 entry with 100 percent payout. To enter, bronc riders need to call Matt Mangis at 605-415-3462 or Cleve Schmidt at 605-430-7319.

The Bobbi Johnson Memorial Barrel Race will be August 3 at the Roundup Grounds in Belle Fourche, S.D. It’s a one run only 5D if there are 50 or more entries, $55 entry fee. Exhibitions will run from 9 a.m. To noon with the race starting at 1 p.m. It’s NWBRA approved.

The Phillips County Fair Indian Relay Races will be August 4 at Dodson, Mont. Qualifying heats and kids races will start at 11 a.m., then at 5 will be the calcutta, ladies race, Indian Mile, Chief’s Race, chariot race, consolation and championship races. For more info call Francine Kill Eagle at 406-390-7761.

There are lots of county fairs happening all over the area and they are a great family event. Be sure and take one in and see what kids are doing with their time out here in the flyover states.

Have a great week and be sure and send me your upcoming events and information worth sharing. It’s always good to hear from you anyway. My email’s at the top of the column.

Nebraska and Colorado Angus Regional Manager Named

Levi Landers, Minden, Nebraska, native has been selected as the American Angus Association® regional manager for Nebraska and Colorado. He joins the Association from American Hereford Association where he has been a field manager for Nebraska, South Dakota, Kansas, North Dakota, Minnesota and Saskatchewan since 2008.

“We are pleased to have Levi join the Angus family,” said David Gazda, director of field services for the Association. “His passion for the industry and the valuable experience he brings to our team, Levi will be a tremendous asset to Angus breeders and commercial producers throughout Region 7.”

Prior to joining Hereford, Landers was a Western Ag Reporter territory manager for Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado and Kansas after earning a Bachelor of Science from Oklahoma Panhandle State University in animal science.

“Throughout the past 15 years, my experiences in the seedstock industry has created a passion for registered cattle and the value they bring to the industry,” Landers said. “So, I’m looking forward to continuing that passion for registered cattle to the Angus breed.”

Originally from Miles City, Montana, Landers grew up on a family commercial operation. He attended junior college at Casper College in Casper, Wyoming, where he was on the livestock judging team, before transferring to Oklahoma Panhandle State University.

For more information about the American Angus Association and its regional managers, please visit angus.org.

–Angus Communications

Montana Department of Livestock Assisting with Wolf Mitigation Donations

Helena, Mont. – The Montana Department of Livestock is working in conjunction with Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks in administering the voluntary fund for wolf mitigation, which was created through the passage of HB 291 in the 2019 legislative session. Donations to the account began to be accepted on July 1st.

The new law facilitates donations of $1 and higher and donations can be made by selecting the Wolf Mitigation donation option under the Conservation heading on FWP’s Online License Service Website or in person at any FWP License provider.

The contributions collected will be placed in a special revenue account administered by the Montana Department of Livestock to fund a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Agriculture’s Wildlife Services for wolf management to include flight time, collaring and lethal control of wolves.

The mission of the MDOL is to control and eradicate animal diseases, prevent the transmission of animal diseases to humans, and to protect the livestock industry from theft and predatory animals. For more information on the department, visit www.liv.mt.gov.

–Montana Department of Livestock

Public Lands Council Opens 2019 Annual Meeting Registration

WASHINGTON (July 15, 2019) – Online registration is now open for the Public Lands Council (PLC) 2019 Annual Meeting in Great Falls, Mont. scheduled September 25-28. The PLC Annual Meeting features a robust schedule of legislative updates, educational seminars, a federal lands range tour, and official organization business.

The PLC Annual Meeting is the largest event in the nation focused exclusively on federal lands and western ranching.

“Everyone who comes to a PLC meeting walks away with a better understanding of the issues impacting their grazing permits,” said PLC President Bob Skinner. “These conversations are important – they impact decisions that govern what we do on public lands through laws and regulations implemented by Congress and agencies in Washington, D.C.”

During the 2019 meeting, more than 20 speakers will share updates regarding federal lands ranching policy. Speakers include key decisionmakers from the Department of the Interior, the Forest Service, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the National Resource Conservation Service. Additional industry partners such as the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, the American Sheep Industry Association, and the National Association of Grasslands will also provide updates.

The 2019 event also features a predator tour along the Rocky Mountain front, a sporting clay event, and a private look at Return to Calgary: Charles M. Russell and the 1919 Victory Stampede, an exhibition featuring 22 original Russell artworks.

Attendees can take advantage of early bird registration rates through Sept. 1. To register for the PLC Annual Meeting visit, www.publiclandscouncil.com.

–Public Lands Council

South Dakota Cattlemen’s Foundation Announces Fed Cattle Challenge

De Smet, South Dakota – July 16, 2019. The South Dakota Cattlemen’s Foundation announced the Fed Cattle Challenge program is open for registration. The Fed Cattle Challenge will provide an opportunity for youth (14 to 18 years old) to learn about the science and economics of finishing cattle by participating in a calf finishing program. Participants will understand the process for finishing cattle through ownership of three head of cattle at a custom feedlot, receive curriculum on twelve topics related to cattle feeding, calculate a closeout and present what they have learned to a panel.

Awards for the top three participants will be awarded. First place will receive $1,500, second place will receive $1,000, and third place will receive $500 award.

“The Fed Cattle Program was designed to give students a more in-depth look at the ins and outs of the cattle feeding industry and help encourage young people to consider going into the business with a good foundation and understanding of how it works. Our feedback from our first year of the program was that we accomplished that goal,” said Roxanne Knock, South Dakota Cattlemen’s Foundation board member.

Each participant will own three head of cattle from a pen at Winner Circle Feedyard. The participant will be responsible for a 30% equity down payment and the feedyard will finance the remaining value of the cattle and expenses. Following harvest, proceeds from the cattle will be divided among the owners of the cattle and the three head of cattle participants own, minus the divided costs. Participants will be given the information and closeout template they need to understand, complete and present to the panel.

Registration for the Fed Cattle Challenge closes August 15, 2019. For more information please visit www.sdcattlemensfoundation.com/education/fed-cattle-challenge

–South Dakota Cattlemen’s Foundation Foundation

REAL Montana announces class IV

BOZEMAN – Twenty current and emerging leaders from Montana’s natural resource industries have been selected to take part in Class IV of REAL Montana (Resource Education and Agriculture Leadership). Class IV will begin their leadership journey on September 12, 2019 at their first seminar in Bozeman.

“REAL Montana continues to strengthen its mission of building a network of informed and engaged leaders to advance the natural resource industries in Montana. The individuals selected for Class IV are a diverse group of leaders who will offer a variety of perspectives and experiences. We look forward to the next two years,” says Bryan Lorengo, chairman of the REAL Montana Advisory Board and Class II graduate.The class of 20 participants was competitively selected from a pool of highly qualified candidates, all of who represent a variety of agriculture and natural resource industries.

REAL Montana is a two-year program featuring eight in-state seminars, a weeklong national study tour in Washington D.C. and a twelve-day international trip. Seminar topics include: agriculture institutions and agencies, natural resource development, public speaking/media, economics, state and federal policy, international trade, urban/rural relationships, water issues, transportation, labor and production costs, and entrepreneurship. REAL Montana is funded through a partnership with MSU Extension and private industry.

Class IV participants are:

Collette Anderson, East Helena: Project Manager, Great West Engineering

Zachary Bashoor, Missoula: Owner/Forest Consultant, Bashoor Land Management, LLC

Colleen Buck, Plentywood: Agriculture and 4-H Agent, MSU Extension

Shawn Fladager, Great Falls: Insurance Agent/Branch Manager, Northwest Farm Credit Services

Orry Fruit, Fort Benton: Assistant Branch Manager and Loan Officer, First Bank of Montana

Courtney Greyn, Columbus: Environmental Engineer, Sibanye-Stillwater Mine

Mike Hatten, Helena: Principal Engineer/Intermountain Operations Manager, Tetra Tech, Inc.

Skyler Hoefer, Frenchtown: Forester, Idaho Forest Group

Cynthia Johnson, Conrad: Co-owner, Desert Claim Farms, Inc.

Robert Koelzer, Kalispell: Safety and Operations Manager, Schellinger Construction

Joel Krautter, Sidney: Attorney, Netzer Law Office, P.C.

Dustin Martens, Forsyth: Engineering Supervisor/Lands Analyst, Westmoreland Rosebud Mining, LLC

Merrill McKamey, Great Falls: Rancher, McKamey West, Inc

Rachel Meredith, Helena: Senior Counsel, Doney Crowley P.C.

Justin Miller, Gilford: President, Sandy Rock Farms

John Morgan, Butte: Human Resources Manager, Pioneer Technical Services

Sydney Ressel, Belgrade: President/Executive Producer, Backcountry Media, LLC

Tayla Snapp, Lewistown: Community Relations and Stakeholder Outreach Specialist, TransCanada

Anna Stitt, Helena: Senior Manager/Certified Public Accountant, Anderson ZurMuehlen

Sue Ann Streufert, Bozeman: Director of Member Relations, Montana Farm Bureau Federation

Complete program information is available at www.realmontana.org or by contacting Tara Becken, (406) 930-4205, REALMontana@montana.edu.

–REAL Montana

PRCA Standings as of July 15, 2019

All-Around Standings

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Stetson Wright, Milford, UT……………..$ 120,353.06

2. Caleb Smidt, Bellville, TX……………..$ 109,391.62

3. Clay Smith, Broken Bow, OK……………..$ 105,422.12

4. Tuf Cooper, Decatur, TX……………..$ 84,068.32

5. Steven Dent, Mullen, NE……………..$ 70,100.11

6. Josh Frost, Randlett, UT……………..$ 66,348.59

7. Rhen Richard, Roosevelt, UT……………..$ 59,970.97

8. Daylon Swearingen, Rochelle, GA……………..$ 56,230.48

9. Clayton Hass, Weatherford, TX……………..$ 50,892.24

10. Trevor Brazile, Decatur, TX……………..$ 43,708.36

11. Tanner Green, Cotulla, TX……………..$ 42,860.47

12. Eli Lord, Sturgis, SD……………..$ 41,761.07

13. Landon McClaugherty, Tilden, TX……………..$ 38,661.63

14. Cody Doescher, Webbers Falls, OK……………..$ 37,253.90

15. Marcus Theriot, Poplarville, MS……………..$ 34,914.03

16. Riley Warren, Stettler, AB……………..$ 28,097.89

17. Chance Oftedahl, Pemberton, MN……………..$ 27,827.26

18. Lane Karney, Creston, CA……………..$ 24,940.84

19. Tim Pharr, Resaca, GA……………..$ 23,753.82

20. Shane Proctor, Grand Coulee, WA……………..$ 22,946.41

Bareback Riding Standings

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Kaycee Feild, Genola, UT……………..$ 134,364.10

2. Orin Larsen, Inglis, MB……………..$ 119,650.31

3. Clayton Biglow, Clements, CA……………..$ 102,197.17

4. Richmond Champion, The Woodlands, TX……………..$ 100,396.51

5. Tilden Hooper, Carthage, TX……………..$ 91,401.98

6. Ty Breuer, Mandan, ND……………..$ 86,112.91

7. Caleb Bennett, Corvallis, MT……………..$ 83,450.50

8. Austin Foss, Terrebonne, OR……………..$ 76,618.46

9. Steven Dent, Mullen, NE……………..$ 62,321.61

10. Taylor Broussard, Estherwood, LA……………..$ 55,984.06

11. Jake Brown, Cleveland, TX……………..$ 53,432.94

12. Clint Laye, Cadogan, AB……………..$ 50,074.66

13. Logan Patterson, Kim, CO……………..$ 49,766.82

14. Tanner Aus, Granite Falls, MN……………..$ 49,723.58

15. Steven Peebles, Redmond, OR……………..$ 49,161.25

16. Bill Tutor, Huntsville, TX……………..$ 48,605.94

17. Wyatt Denny, Minden, NV……………..$ 47,224.48

18. Connor Hamilton, Calgary, AB……………..$ 45,700.33

19. Pascal Isabelle, Okotoks, AB……………..$ 42,317.56

20. Trenten Montero, Winnemucca, NV……………..$ 41,421.01

Steer Wrestling Standings

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Ty Erickson, Helena, MT……………..$ 116,795.78

2. Scott Guenthner, Provost, AB……………..$ 72,925.22

3. Hunter Cure, Holliday, TX……………..$ 71,367.78

4. Tyler Waguespack, Gonzales, LA……………..$ 68,896.07

5. Josh Garner, Live Oak, CA……………..$ 66,096.30

6. Riley Duvall, Checotah, OK……………..$ 57,102.69

7. Kyle Irwin, Robertsdale, AL……………..$ 55,160.75

8. Tanner Brunner, Ramona, KS……………..$ 54,952.20

9. Cameron Morman, Glen Ullin, ND……………..$ 53,725.77

10. Stephen Culling, Fort St. John, BC……………..$ 51,470.56

11. J.D. Struxness, Milan, MN……………..$ 51,315.15

12. Will Lummus, West Point, MS……………..$ 49,879.93

13. Dakota Eldridge, Elko, NV……………..$ 48,852.18

14. Tyler Pearson, Louisville, MS……………..$ 48,737.17

15. Stetson Jorgensen, Blackfoot, ID……………..$ 47,246.77

16. Tanner Milan, Cochrane, AB……………..$ 45,763.67

17. Nick Guy, Sparta, WI……………..$ 45,070.99

18. Blake Mindemann, Blanchard, OK……………..$ 44,782.49

19. Matt Reeves, Cross Plains, TX……………..$ 40,765.13

20. Clayton Hass, Weatherford, TX……………..$ 40,646.15

Team Roping (Headers) Standings

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Clay Smith, Broken Bow, OK……………..$ 100,867.26

2. Ty Blasingame, Casper, WY……………..$ 87,472.15

3. Riley Minor, Ellensburg, WA……………..$ 77,252.60

4. Coleman Proctor, Pryor, OK……………..$ 75,235.67

5. Kaleb Driggers, Hoboken, GA……………..$ 63,018.77

6. Luke Brown, Rock hill, SC……………..$ 62,007.42

7. Cody Snow, Los Olivos, CA……………..$ 60,991.06

8. Chad Masters, Cedar Hill, TN……………..$ 51,434.30

9. Paul David Tierney, Oklahoma City, OK……………..$ 49,665.28

10. Tate Kirchenschlager, Yuma, CO……………..$ 49,278.25

11. Jake Cooper, Monument, NM……………..$ 45,362.64

12. Tyler Wade, Terrell, TX……………..$ 44,866.96

13. Clay Tryan, Billings, MT……………..$ 42,852.56

14. Bubba Buckaloo, Kingston, OK……………..$ 38,955.45

15. Erich Rogers, Round Rock, AZ……………..$ 38,433.07

16. Matt Sherwood, Pima, AZ……………..$ 38,272.91

17. Brenten Hall, Stephenville, TX……………..$ 35,992.20

18. Spencer Mitchell, Orange Cove, CA……………..$ 35,773.82

19. Dustin Egusquiza, Mariana, FL……………..$ 35,190.09

20. Steven Duby, Hereford, OR……………..$ 34,419.05

Team Roping (Heelers) Standings

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Kyle Lockett, Visalia, CA……………..$ 86,560.66

2. Ryan Motes, Weatherford, TX……………..$ 82,651.03

3. Brady Minor, Ellensburg, WA……………..$ 77,252.60

4. Jake Long, Coffeyville, KS……………..$ 69,883.91

5. Paul Eaves, lonedell, MO……………..$ 66,062.86

6. Junior Nogueira, Burleson, TX……………..$ 63,018.77

7. Jade Corkill, Fallon, NV……………..$ 58,992.97

8. Joseph Harrison, Overbrook, OK……………..$ 52,522.43

9. Wesley Thorp, Throckmorton, TX……………..$ 51,823.58

10. Tanner Braden, Dewey, OK……………..$ 49,665.28

11. Hunter Koch, Vernon, TX……………..$ 48,460.07

12. Caleb Anderson, Mocksville, NC……………..$ 45,362.64

13. Travis Graves, Jay, OK……………..$ 42,852.56

14. Ross Ashford, Lott, TX……………..$ 38,184.41

15. Chase Tryan, Helena, MT……………..$ 35,992.20

16. Billie Jack Saebens, Nowata, OK……………..$ 35,647.16

17. Tyler Worley, Berryville, AR……………..$ 35,203.33

18. Kory Koontz, Stephenville, TX……………..$ 34,063.54

19. Cole Davison, Stephenville, TX……………..$ 33,231.62

20. Jason Duby, Klamath Falls, OR……………..$ 31,919.05

Saddle Bronc Riding Standings

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Ryder Wright, Beaver, UT……………..$ 167,886.94

2. Zeke Thurston, Big Valley, AB……………..$ 142,438.19

3. Sterling Crawley, Stephenville, TX……………..$ 88,726.33

4. Chase Brooks, Deer Lodge, MT……………..$ 88,277.63

5. Jesse Wright, Milford, UT……………..$ 87,616.61

6. Jacobs Crawley, Boerne, TX……………..$ 76,206.97

7. Jake Watson, Hudsons Hope, BC……………..$ 73,480.26

8. Rusty Wright, Milford, UT……………..$ 64,947.39

9. Spencer Wright, Milford, UT……………..$ 64,252.52

10. Bradley Harter, Loranger, LA……………..$ 62,029.80

11. Dawson Hay, wildwood, AB……………..$ 59,049.14

12. Wade Sundell, Boxholm, IA……………..$ 52,696.38

13. Isaac Diaz, Desdemona, TX……………..$ 52,519.52

14. Colt Gordon, Comanche, OK……………..$ 52,000.52

15. Lefty Holman, Visalia, CA……………..$ 50,270.46

16. Jake Finlay, Goondiwindi, QL……………..$ 46,111.29

17. Jesse Kruse, Great Falls, MT……………..$ 45,222.64

18. JJ Elshere, Hereford, SD……………..$ 45,164.02

19. Shorty Garrett, Eagle Butte, SD……………..$ 43,137.04

20. Cort Scheer, Elsmere, NE……………..$ 42,430.63

Tie-Down Roping Standings

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Tyson Durfey, Brock, TX……………..$ 98,700.44

2. Caleb Smidt, Bellville, TX……………..$ 98,658.50

3. Michael Otero, Weatherford, TX……………..$ 87,291.59

4. Shane Hanchey, Sulphur, LA……………..$ 75,664.97

5. Tuf Cooper, Decatur, TX……………..$ 74,465.92

6. Taylor Santos, Creston, CA……………..$ 66,243.47

7. Cooper Martin, Alma, KS……………..$ 65,856.29

8. Haven Meged, Miles City, MT……………..$ 63,402.81

9. Marty Yates, Stephenville, TX……………..$ 61,050.28

10. Tyler Milligan, Pawhuska, OK……………..$ 55,339.44

11. Riley Pruitt, Gering, NE……………..$ 54,589.30

12. Rhen Richard, Roosevelt, UT……………..$ 52,507.32

13. Ty Harris, San Angelo, TX……………..$ 50,670.18

14. Westyn Hughes, Caldwell, TX……………..$ 49,608.12

15. Cody McCartney, Ottawa Lake, MI……………..$ 48,031.38

16. Ryan Jarrett, Comanche, OK……………..$ 45,653.63

17. Adam Gray, Seymour, TX……………..$ 45,615.34

18. Jake Pratt, Ellensburg, WA……………..$ 44,424.36

19. Justin Smith, Leesville, LA……………..$ 42,806.17

20. Reese Riemer, Stinnett, TX……………..$ 42,634.06

Steer Roping Standings

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Trevor Brazile, Decatur, TX……………..$ 47,012.79

2. Vin Fisher Jr., Andrews, TX……………..$ 44,787.62

3. Tuf Cooper, Decatur, TX……………..$ 33,447.37

4. Scott Snedecor, Fredericksburg, TX……………..$ 29,994.90

5. J. Tom Fisher, Andrews, TX……………..$ 25,640.84

6. Chet Herren, Pawhuska, OK……………..$ 24,937.63

7. Chris Glover, Keenesburg, CO……………..$ 24,807.07

8. Garrett Hale, Snyder, TX……………..$ 24,773.88

9. Tony Reina, wharton, TX……………..$ 24,291.59

10. Cody Lee, Gatesville, TX……………..$ 23,714.68

11. Jess Tierney, Hermosa, SD……………..$ 21,681.19

12. Rocky Patterson, Pratt, KS……………..$ 21,578.49

13. Brady Garten, Oologah, OK……………..$ 20,716.16

14. Cole Patterson, Pratt, KS……………..$ 20,305.28

15. Landon McClaugherty, Tilden, TX……………..$ 19,453.80

16. Shay Good, Abilene, TX……………..$ 19,170.97

17. Brodie Poppino, Big Cabin, OK……………..$ 17,066.50

18. Corey Ross, Liberty Hill, TX……………..$ 15,932.59

19. Jarrett Blessing, Paradise, TX……………..$ 15,852.21

20. Roger Branch, Wellston, OK……………..$ 15,843.95

Bull Riding Standings

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Sage Kimzey, Strong City, OK……………..$ 146,834.65

2. Stetson Wright, Milford, UT……………..$ 113,944.53

3. Trevor Kastner, Roff, OK……………..$ 105,919.16

4. Parker Breding, Edgar, MT……………..$ 105,745.83

5. Clayton Sellars, Fruitland Park, FL……………..$ 95,379.39

6. Tyler Bingham, Honeyville, UT……………..$ 92,156.39

7. Boudreaux Campbell, Crockett, TX……………..$ 84,496.97

8. Jeff Askey, Athens, TX……………..$ 83,303.82

9. Garrett Smith, Rexburg, ID……………..$ 80,652.64

10. Trey Benton III, Rock Island, TX……………..$ 72,493.50

11. Trey Kimzey, Strong City, OK……………..$ 71,846.35

12. Josh Frost, Randlett, UT……………..$ 69,931.39

13. Cole Melancon, Liberty, TX……………..$ 64,811.28

14. Lon Danley, Tularosa, NM……………..$ 57,761.15

15. Daylon Swearingen, Rochelle, GA……………..$ 57,120.98

16. Koby Radley, Montpelier, LA……………..$ 54,993.36

17. Trevor Reiste, Linden, IA……………..$ 54,690.93

18. Chase Dougherty, Canby, OR……………..$ 49,220.16

19. Tristan Mize, Bryan, TX……………..$ 47,325.24

20. J.W. Harris, Goldthwaite, TX……………..$ 46,340.47

Barrel Racing Standings (last updated July 15, 2019 | Courtesy of WPRA)

Rank, Name, City, State, Earnings

1. Hailey Kinsel, Cotulla, TX……………..$ 130,891.08

2. Lisa Lockhart, Oelrichs, SD……………..$ 122,088.24

3. Nellie Miller, Cottonwood, CA……………..$ 120,728.96

4. Emily Miller, Weatherford, OK……………..$ 81,430.01

5. Jennifer Sharp, Richards, TX……………..$ 77,383.92

6. Shali Lord, Lamar, CO……………..$ 76,974.86

7. Brittany Pozzi Tonozzi, Lampasas, TX……………..$ 76,322.65

8. Jessica Routier, Buffalo, SD……………..$ 68,593.31

9. Ivy Conrado, Nowata, OK……………..$ 66,774.91

10. Ericka Nelson, Century, FL……………..$ 66,697.12

11. Stevi Hillman, Weatherford, TX……………..$ 65,067.56

12. Amberleigh Moore, Salem, OR……………..$ 59,351.42

13. Jimmie Smith, McDade, TX……………..$ 57,354.45

14. Jessica Telford, Caldwell, ID……………..$ 57,221.31

15. Lacinda Rose, Willard, MO……………..$ 57,146.12

16. Dona Rule, Minco, OK……………..$ 55,890.16

17. Leia Pluemer, Los Lunas, NM……………..$ 51,353.02

18. Jill Wilson, Snyder, TX……………..$ 45,185.70

19. Callahan Crossley, Hermiston, OR……………..$ 42,042.24

20. Sabra O’Quinn, Ocala, FL……………..$ 41,970.83

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Naomi Mildred Hawley Terhune

1925-2019

Naomi was born born August 20, 1925 Gustave, South Dakota, (Harding County) and died June 24, 2019 Hulett, Wyoming, (Crook County.)

Naomi was the first born of 12 children to Clara V. (Everts) Hawley and George W. Hawley. Ten girls and two boys would build a large family for this couple of Dutch English and German, English, Irish ancestry.

Naomi and her sister, Maxine would experience life in a sheep wagon traveling and living on sheep ranches with their parents in Butte County, South Dakota and Crook County, Wyoming, during the summers from 1925 to 1927. The summer of 1927 George went ahead with livestock and household goods to establish a home for his young family in Crook County. Clara came later by car and mail truck and sled with their two little girls.

From 1927 to 1953 George and Clara lived on various farms including Blacktail Creek south of Hulett and Deer Creek area north of Hulett. The family grew to 12 by 1946. Naomi was ‘Big Sister’ to all. From her mother she learned to cook, can, sew, and garden as well as become a great caretaker to help raise her siblings. Country schooling required many children to pile onto the back of a trusted old horse named “Glory” or walk an average of two miles to and from school. Naomi received an 8th grade education at the Deer Creek School with Claudice Pearson as teacher.

Naomi learned to work alongside her father as he cut railroad ties from a sawmill he owned and operated for five years. She learned to care for livestock as well. Childhood required walking to springs and wells to get water. Horseback trips took her and sisters to Hulett to get mail or groceries for the family. Naomi’s stories of her childhood were always funny and filled with things like hobos coming to their door for a handout or learning to bake bread in the wood stove and forgetting yeast or nearly setting the roof on fire because the stove got too hot.

Lots of great stories Naomi shared with her family and caregivers during the last three years of her life. These were what remained in her memory due to Alzheimer’s Dementia. Hours were spent drinking tea and sharing stories of how fun it was to have neighborhood picnics, fishing trips, school activities, sawmilling, or raising sheep and cattle. There were always stories about her children, Jack and Peggy or her sisters, and, of course, her husband, Robert Terhune and father-in-law, Ted Terhune, were included.

Around 1942-1943, Naomi left Wyoming and traveled by bus from Belle Fourche, with all her possessions in one small suitcase, to Los Angeles to stay with two aunts, sisters of her mother. There she began working to support the WWII war effort as so many American women did. She got employment in a watch factory converted to making brass shells for the military. She described in detail why she quit after a few months.

She and a man were night workers stirring big vats of molten brass. They walked a gang plank above the vats stirring with large paddles, the size of a boat oar. Her co-worker fell in and dissolved. She thought the job was too dangerous, so she quit.

Her next challenge was to go to night school and study accounting and bookkeeping. By day she built her skills as a seamstress and tailor guided by her aunts who created clothing for Hollywood actresses.

By 1946 she longed for home and her family and returned to Belle Fourche, where she worked as a nursing aide at John Burns Hospital. She gained great empathy for caregivers and the ill. Entertainment in those days included many community dances. She met Robert “Mans” Terhune and began dating him. She had known him only slightly as a neighbor as both had been raised on or near Deer Creek, in Crook County. “Bob” worked as a mechanic at Hoseth Auto in Belle. They were married April 9, 1946 at the Methodist Church in Belle.

She and Bob moved to a ranch east of Alzada, MT that spring to work for Clinton and Barbara Hoffman. Bob did work building dikes and reservoirs with a CAT and Naomi cooked and did housework. This ranch was west of Belle about 35 miles. By the following year she and Bob joined Bob’s father, E.M. “Ted” Terhune running a sawmill operation in Wyoming about 12 miles south of Alzada. The business grew and Naomi used her skills to garden, can, and sew work shirts for the hired men. Her youngest sisters remember coming to Naomi’s for Christmas dinner in their three-room home and how fun it was to open presents made by Naomi-dolls and doll clothes, and her good dinner.

The winter of 1949 made records throughout several states in this region. The “Winter of 49” stories are in history books for snow depth and how damaging it was to livestock, barns, homes, and people.

So, in late April 1949, with new three-day old baby, Peggy, Naomi and Bob and Ted moved their sawmill to Alzada and set up a mill and planer operation southeast of the current Alzada school. They moved their three-room home across the road east of the mill and began milling lumber to help re-build farm and ranch buildings and windbreaks for the area that had been damaged by the winter snow.

Naomi made a big garden and strawberry patch. She built onto their home seven more rooms with lumber from the mill and help from Bob and Ted. Her interior wood was planed at their sawmill with the help of Joe Nikodym from Alzada, who was a fine carpenter, she learned to finish several rooms with knotty pine and to build furniture for their new home, dish cupboard, coffee tables, headboard and nightstands. She had the job of cooking for 17 hired men every noon as well.

By June 27, 1952, Naomi and Bob had a son, Jack, to complete their family. Naomi’s sisters describe coming from their ranch in Wyoming with parents, George and Clara to go to Belle for supplies. Naomi had sisters who were not yet old enough to go to school. Their stories describe how charming Naomi’s home was with pretty breezy white curtains she had made and the doll house feeling they enjoyed while eating home-made ice cream with strawberries.

Alzada wasn’t large, fewer than a 100 people but a big community in the tristate area. A Woman’s Club was formed, and Naomi participated and enjoyed the social connections with many other women. She also shared the same values as the other women, that community mattered. The Alzada Women’s Club hosted monthly dances at the community hall. The Alzada Rodeo and dance was always the biggest event of the year. Food they all prepared was served and proceeds went back into more community events like, donkey baseball, wedding showers, school programs, support to families in need, and whatever they could do. They shared caring for children as their kids all grew up together in this small town.

Bob and Naomi’s two children, Jack and Peggy learned to work at the mill and around home. They rented land in Wyoming and raised sheep and the kids shared in that. Bob and Ted sheared sheep each spring, so Peggy went along to help sort sheep and stomp wool. Jack learned to mechanic and blacksmith with help from grandfather, Ted and Bob. Jack and Peggy attended Alzada’s two room school until 1960. Grandpa Ted taught Peggy to drive to fishing holes when she was six years old. When Ted became ill in 1959, Naomi cared for him and prepared special meals she had to give him through a feeding tube. Naomi was still talking about the happy times working with Ted even in her last few weeks.

By 1960, with Ted’s passing, Naomi and Bob chased their dream of having their own ranch and closed the sawmill and moved back to their roots-north Crook County. They purchased a small place on Deer Creek near where Bob’s parents had homesteaded and where Naomi grew up.

They started with sheep and milk cows but soon switched to Hereford cattle after losing too many lambs to coyotes. Naomi became a great cattlewoman and handled all the ranch bookkeeping. She was very proud of 100 percent calf crop and never hesitated to save a calf or lamb by bringing it into her kitchen to be warmed for a few hours. She and Bob raised gentle cattle even after switching to Angus, known to be a bit to handle. Nevertheless, she did the whole thing including fencing, vaccinating, calving cows, sewing costumes for Peggy’s baton twirling at school, raising an acre garden, becoming an ATV expert, tractor driving, and haying. She still holds the ranch record for the most small hay bales stacked in a single day – 874. Naomi and Bob were still actively running their ranch until about 2008 and she was 83 years old and he was 86.

Dementia started its slow capture of Naomi’s later life giving her, the family, and Bob, challenges to run the ranch and keep her comfortable and safe. She moved to Spearfish’s Dorsett Home for professional care in February 2016 and resided there until October 2017. Bob stayed on alone at the ranch with son, Jack and wife, Linda, nearby and Peggy visiting frequently. By April 2017 Bob also moved to Spearfish for care.

Living together in the same building, but not together and not at “home,” Jack and Peggy decided to try something different and arranged to have a private home in Spearfish with home health caregivers, Comfort Keepers, look after their parents. It was a great success. Both Bob and Naomi received perfect end of life care at home with visitors and family and home cooked meals. A Comfort Keepers team of loving women felt it was a joy to help them. Describing Naomi as “Pure Love.” Peggy spent the better part of those years living with them to care for them. Sisters, Joan Anderson and Judy Keil, helped care for both Bob and Naomi during the Spearfish years. Both expressed how glad they were to help and get to know their sister they learned how witty she was and that she was tremendously respectful of life, Mother Nature, and people.

Naomi and Bob were honored in August 2018 by Comfort Keepers International as “Family of the Year” along with 19 others in the US and their over-seas companies.

Naomi was very pleasant in spite of the developing dementia. After moving into her new home in Spearfish she began doing simple artwork projects at the table. Her caregivers and doctors were impressed with the results. During September 2018, the Suzie Cappa Art Gallery in Rapid City featured her work in honor of the National Alzheimers Walk being held in Rapid City.

Bob passed away, August 22, 2018 and Naomi stayed on at her home in Spearfish until late May 2019. She returned to her ranch on Deer Creek to live. Once again she had family, Jack and Linda, and the loving care of Healing Hearts Home Health caregivers.

Naomi was preceded in death by her parents, Clara V. (Everts) and George W. Hawley; her siblings, Maxine (Harvey) Morgan, Marjorie (Willie) Burk, Lucille (William “Bill”) Ridinger, Geraldine (Don) Lynn, John Hawley, and Frances (Phil) Cadwell.

Surviving siblings include, Betty (Eldon) Nielsen of Alva, WY, George (Jeanette) Hawley of Biddle, MT, Joan (Tom) Anderson of Spearfish, SD, Jean (Bud) Lynn of Coffee Creek, MT, and Judy (Jim) Keil of Katy, TX.

Naomi’s son, Jack and wife, Linda, reside at the family ranch in Hulett, WY, daughter, Peggy and husband, Steve Nervig reside in Vail, AZ. Naomi’s grandchildren are Billy Jack Terhune, Carol Naylor, Dawna Naylor, and Chadd Nervig; and 10 great grandchildren, nine great-great grandchildren, as well as numerous nieces and nephews.

All children agree, “Grandma T” made the best mashed potatoes and gravy and rhubarb pie of all Grandmas.

Jack describes life working on the ranch with his mom, “Even a bad day was great if I could work with Mom.”

Peggy described a scene one summer afternoon, “A big hail storm tore Mom’s garden to smithereens. Everything was pounded down into the mud and tops cut off. Mom fell to her knees and sobbed. I was about 14 and this scared me to see my Mom so devastated. Then she stood up and turned toward the house and said “Come on Peggy, we have work to do.” We gathered paper grocery sacks, baling strings and broken snow fence sticks. Back at the garden we pulled everything up and supported it. September came and Mom’s garden produced a bumper crop. Mom taught us all important life lessons.

Naomi and Bob will have a private memorial and burial at the ranch later. They previously had a Celebration of Life with family, friends, neighbors, and caregivers at a gathering at their Spearfish home in August 2018 before Bob’s passing.

Cards or letters may be sent to Jack and Linda Terhune, 307 Deer Creek Rd, Alzada, MT, 59311 or call 307-467-5821 or to Peggy and Steve Nervig, 15682 E. Colossal Cave Rd., Vail, AZ, 85641 or call 520-488-3349.

We are so grateful to all who helped, supported and encouraged us through this time.

Friends and family may sign her online guestbook and leave written condolences at blackhillsfuneralhome.com.

SDSU Extension Offers Feedlot Shortcourse, BQA Transportation Training Opportunities

BROOKINGS, S.D. – SDSU Extension is offering an opportunity for cattle feeders to sharpen their management skills and improve their profit potential by participating in the 2019 Feedlot Shortcourse. During the shortcourse, a training will also be offered for participants to obtain Beef Quality Assurance Transportation (BQAT) certification.

The Feedlot Shortcourse is a two-day event starting on August 13 at 1:00 p.m. and concluding on August 14 at 1:00 p.m. The shortcourse will be held at the SDSU Cow-Calf Education and Research Facility classroom located at 2910 Western Ave, Brookings, S.D.

The shortcourse focuses on the aspects of feedlot management that impact cattle performance and profitability. A particular emphasis this year will be strategies to deal with feed challenges associated with late planting conditions, such as silage utilization and high-moisture grain management. Strategies on how to use the backgrounding phase to manage cattle’s genetic potential more precisely will be another key portion of the program. Both of these segments will be led by Alfredo DiCostanzo, Professor of Beef Cattle Nutrition & Management at the University of Minnesota.

Another opportunity offered at this year’s Feedlot Shortcourse is the chance to observe the consequences of improper implanting techniques. Brian Dorcey, DVM, with the Veterinary Medical Center in Worthington, Minn., will lead an ear necropsy session showing exactly what happens when proper procedures are not followed and how that can affect implant response. Dorcey will also present information on common mistakes and opportunities to improve cattle health and performance during the receiving and starting phases in the feedlot.

Speakers will also cover topics focused on reducing cost of gain and improving outcomes, including bunk management and feed mixing, environmental stress mitigation and growth promotant technologies. Additional speakers on the program include:

Zach Smith, SDSU Ruminant Nutrition Center Faculty Supervisor and Assistant Professor

Todd Franz, J & R Feeds

Warren Rusche, SDSU Extension Beef Feedlot Management Associate

Participants also have the option of obtaining BQAT certification during a training held in conjunction with the shortcourse on August 14 at 1:00 p.m. Major beef processors will be requiring any drivers of trucks delivering cattle to their facilities to have this certification by January 1, 2020. Typically there is a charge for participating in a face-to-face BQAT training, but because of sponsorship funds the training will be offered at no charge. Attendance at the shortcourse is not necessary to participate in the BQAT certification training, but pre-registration is required.

Registration for both programs is limited and open to cattle feeders, backgrounders or allied industry professionals. Cost for the shortcourse, which includes dinner on day 1 and lunch on day 2, is $150. The BQAT training is offered free of charge. On-line registration for both events is available at the extension.sdstate.edu/events, and search for BQA.

For more information about the Feedlot Shortcourse, contact Warren Rusche, SDSU Extension Beef Feedlot Management Associate, at warren.rusche@sdstate.edu or 605-688-5452. For more information about the BQAT certification, contact Heidi Carroll, SDSU Extension Livestock Stewardship Field Specialist and BQA Coordinator, at Heidi.carroll@sdstate.edu or 605-688-6623. F

–SDSU Extension